A Bewitch and A Loss for Adjuvant ICIs in Certain Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

SAN FRANCISCO — The employ of adjuvant pembrolizumab (Keytruda) boosted overall survival (OS) in post-surgical sufferers with positive cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in danger for recurrence, based fully fully on KEYNOTE-564 findings.

Sufferers treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) had a 38% diminished possibility of demise when put next with sufferers on placebo, reported Tony Choueiri, MD, of the Dana-Farber Most cancers Institute in Boston.

“Between 1973 and now, there had been 17 randomized controlled trials with over 12,000 sufferers with kidney most cancers who had been enrolled on adjuvant therapies on RCC, with zero survival development,” Choueiri acknowledged. “Right here’s the first survey to advise a statistically necessary and clinically meaningful survival development with any adjuvant therapy in kidney most cancers,” he acknowledged at the Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (GuCS).

Nonetheless, results from a second trial presented at GuCS supplied much less obvious results: In section B of CheckMate 914, nivolumab (Opdivo) monotherapy as an adjuvant therapy didn’t make stronger disease-free survival (DFS) versus placebo in sufferers with localized RCC at high possibility of relapse after nephrectomy.


At a median be aware up of 57.2 months, median OS became no longer reached in both trial arm, and resulted in an HR 0.62 (95% CI 0.44-0.87, P=0.002) in favor of pembrolizumab.

OS at 1 yr became 98.6% with pembrolizumab versus 98.0% with placebo, while 4-yr OS charges had been 91.2% and 86.0%, respectively.

DFS results had been neutral like those demonstrated in an earlier intervening time evaluation by which KEYNOTE-564 met its main endpoint of DFS. Within the newest evaluation, adjuvant pembrolizumab diminished the likelihood of disease recurrence or demise by 28% (HR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.59-0.87) when put next with placebo.

The updated results “extra toughen adjuvant pembrolizumab as a passe of care after surgery in this disease atmosphere,” Choueiri acknowledged.

The survey enrolled 994 sufferers (median age 60; about 70% male) with high-possibility positive cell RCC who had been randomized to the 2 palms.

Most sufferers (over 90%) had been classified as M0, with about 85% M0 intermediate-high possibility.

Therapy-linked destructive occasions (TRAEs) occurred in 79.1% of sufferers in the pembrolizumab arm and 53.0% of sufferers in the placebo arm. Grade 3-4 TRAEs occurred in 18.6% and 1.2% of sufferers in the 2 palms, respectively.

TRAEs ensuing in discontinuation of any therapy occurred in 18.2% and 0.8% of sufferers in the 2 palms.

No therapy-linked deaths occurred.

CheckMate 914

Share A of the CheckMate-914 trial previously didn’t advise a DFS serve with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) when put next with placebo in sufferers with localized RCC at high possibility of post-nephrectomy relapse.

Share B became designed to enhance section A by also assessing adjuvant nivolumab monotherapy. It showed that at a median be aware-up of 27 months and a median therapy length of 5.1 months, median DFS became no longer reached in both the nivolumab or placebo arm (HR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.62-1.21, P=.396), reported Robert Motzer, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Most cancers Heart in Unique York Metropolis.

At 18 months, DFS charges had been 78.4% in the nivolumab arm and 75.4% in the placebo arm.

Thus, “essentially the predominant endpoint of DFS for nivolumab monotherapy became no longer met,” Motzer acknowledged.

Motzer added that for the reason that main endpoint of DFS became no longer reached, no formal OS evaluation will be conducted.

Share B included 825 sufferers — 411 assigned to the nivolumab arm, 208 to placebo, and 206 to nivolumab plus ipilimumab. These sufferers had a median age of 59, 93% had undergone radical nephrectomy, about 80% had pT3 tumors, while 7-8% had sarcomatoid aspects, and about 10% had PD-L1 >1%.

Amongst protect subgroups there became a pattern favoring nivolumab in sufferers with sarcomatoid aspects, PD-L1 expression >1%, and folks with a decrease limit of usual hemoglobin at baseline.

Motzer also reported that DFS outcomes for nivolumab plus ipilimumab had been identical in both parts A and B.

Why Fully Pembrolizumab?

The outcomes from CheckMate 914 are in accordance with identical immunotherapy trials that didn’t advise a DFS operate an adjuvant therapy in RCC, ensuing in the quiz of why pembrolizumab worked and more than just a few brokers didn’t.

GuCS discussant Pedro C. Barata, MD, of the College Hospitals Seidman Most cancers Heart in Cleveland, acknowledged the acknowledge to that quiz “is in all probability multifactorial.”

“I feel factors like histology, assorted medicine, length of therapy, affected person characteristics like high possibility, sarcomatoid aspects, security profile, doubtlessly all conducted a characteristic,” he acknowledged.

Barata illustrious that in taking a study the DFS curve for KEYNOTE-564 “or no longer it goes to be essential to be mindful that half of of post-nephrectomy sufferers with high-possibility aspects prove being cured and attain no longer require adjuvant therapy.”

Nonetheless, he added, when one weighs the dangers and advantages of adjuvant therapy, “I feel the scale tilts in direction of favoring adjuvant pembrolizumab; as we stumbled on out those sufferers dwell longer.”

Having a look forward, Barata acknowledged, extra level of curiosity desires to be positioned on uncover how to greater title sufferers for adjuvant pembrolizumab; address sufferers who progress on pembrolizumab; and define the characteristic of that drug and more than just a few ICIs beyond positive cell RCC.


KEYNOTE 564 became funded by Merck Moving & Dohme.

CheckMate 914 became funded by Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS). Some co-authors are firm workers.

Choueiri and Motzer disclosed extra than one relationships with change.

Barata disclosed relationships with AstraZeneca, Aveo, Bayer, BMS, Caris Existence Science, Eisai, EMD Serono, Exelixis, Merck, and Pfizer; institutional relationships with Dendreon, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Caris Existence Sciences, Merck, Pfizer/Astellas; and institutional be taught funding from Aveo, Blue Earth Diagnostics, Exelixis, Merck, and Pfizer.

Main Supply

Genitourinary Cancers Symposium

Supply Reference: Motzer R, et al “Adjuvant nivolumab monotherapy vs placebo for localized renal cell carcinoma at high possibility of relapse after nephrectomy: results from section B of the randomized, section 3 CheckMate 914 trial” GuCS 2024; Abstract LBA358.

Secondary Supply

Genitourinary Cancers Symposium

Supply Reference: Choueiri T, et al “Total survival results from the section 3 KEYNOTE-564 survey of adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo for the therapy of positive cell renal cell carcinoma” GuCS 2024; Abstract LBA359.

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